The candidate for the Ph.D. must demonstrate a command of at least three languages besides English. Three of these four languages must coincide with the student’s areas of specialization and with the dissertation field. Competence in the fourth language, designated as the research language, must be certified before the student takes the Ph.D. preliminary examination. The same standard is used here as is used for the research language at the M.A. level. The level of linguistic competence in the student’s major literature must be equivalent to that required by the respective literature department for its own graduate students. The linguistic competence in the student’s minor literatures must be sufficient so as to allow taking and completing graduate seminars in the respective literatures.